which category of coal is used in dri

Sustainability Enhancement of the Coal Based Direct ... Springer

Sustainability Enhancement of the Coal Based Direct ... Springer

Raw material utilization and waste generation for the DRI suggest that tonnes of ore, tonnes of noncoking coal and tonnes of dolomite are needed to produce 1 tonne of sponge iron and tonnes of solid wastes [2, 5].This implies that for every 10 tonnes of sponge iron produced, almost 2 tonnes of solid wastes are produced in the form of semiprocessed iron and coal char.

PDF ENERGIRON Direct Reduction Technology Economical, Flexible ... Tenova

PDF ENERGIRON Direct Reduction Technology Economical, Flexible ... Tenova

For the production of high quality DRI, 94% metallization, % carbon and discharged at 700°C, the thermal energy consumption is only Gcal/t DRI as natural gas and just 60 to 80 kWh/ton DRI as electricity, with a remarkable low iron ore consumption of to t/t DRI, mainly due to high operating pressure.

 energy facts explained  Energy Information Administration (EIA)

energy facts explained Energy Information Administration (EIA)

In terms of coal's total energy content, annual coal consumption peaked in 2005 at about quads and production peaked in 1998 at about quads. The energy content of total annual coal consumption has declined largely because the electric power sector has increased use of lower heat content coal. In 2022, coal consumption was ...

Direct Reduced Iron (DRI) Cargo Handbook

Direct Reduced Iron (DRI) Cargo Handbook

Directreduced iron (DRI), also called sponge iron, is produced from direct reduction of iron ore (in the form of lumps, pellets or fines) by a reducing gas produced from natural gas or coal. The reducing gas is a mixture majority of hydrogen (H2) and carbon monoxide (CO) which acts as reducing agent. This process of directly reducing the iron ...

Government seeks to revive probe into Adani coal imports

Government seeks to revive probe into Adani coal imports

Adani Group said in a statement on Friday that during the DRI's inquiry into the alleged overvaluation of Indonesian coal imported by Adani Enterprises Ltd. and Adani Power Ltd., among other ...

Direct Reduction Process an overview | ScienceDirect Topics

Direct Reduction Process an overview | ScienceDirect Topics

Any coal with an ash melting temperature above 1050°C and a 10%40% VM content can be used in the Circofer. Coal with ash content <15% is preferable to keep the circulating load in the reactor, and in the case of direct charging into a smelter, the slag volume to a minimum (von Bitter et al., 1999). DRI produced by the Circofer process (>93% ...

PDF Decarbonization challenge for steel McKinsey Company

PDF Decarbonization challenge for steel McKinsey Company

While integrated players produce steel from iron ore and need coal as a reductant, EAF producers use steel scrap or direct reduced iron (DRI) as their main raw material.

PDF Coal gasification for DRI production An Indian solution

PDF Coal gasification for DRI production An Indian solution

Of the total DRI production in 2008, 74% was produced from coal in rotary kilns and 26% from natural gas in shaft furnaces. India is now the world's largest producer of DRI. Currently, there are two primary means of DRI production in India: smallscale rotary kilns using local coal and iron ore lump, and largescale shaft furnace plants ...

Iron and Types of Iron IspatGuru

Iron and Types of Iron IspatGuru

Iron as an element is not in common use. However, the term iron is used for different materials which contain a high percentage of iron in elemental form. These materials are categorized as (i) pure iron, (ii) wrought iron, (iii) cast iron, (iv) pig iron, and (v) direct reduced iron. These types of iron are shown in Fig 1.

Energy consumption as a function of metallization and scrap/DRI ratio ...

Energy consumption as a function of metallization and scrap/DRI ratio ...

An established alternative to coal and cokebased reduction of iron ores in blast furnaces is the ore reduction by coal or reformed natural gas (CO, H2) to direct reduced iron (DRI) or hot...

Coal classification | Types Facts | Britannica

Coal classification | Types Facts | Britannica

Based on maceral content and its appearance in a hand specimen, coal is classified into four principal types: clarain, durain, fusain, and vitrain. Coal may also be classified in grades using subjective terms (, "lowsulfur coal," "highash coal") with reference to their impurities for commercial purposes. Otto C. Kopp

PDF World Direct Reduction Statistics

PDF World Direct Reduction Statistics

in shaft furnacebased processes, and DRI produced using natural gas has significantly lower CO 2 emissions than DRI produced using coal. In 2022, approximately % of the DRI produced was natural gasbased (, low CO 2 DRI), whereas the balance, %, was coalbased (, high CO 2 DRI). MIDREX Plants have produced a cumulative total of

Decarbonisation and hydrogen integration of steel ... ScienceDirect

Decarbonisation and hydrogen integration of steel ... ScienceDirect

The steel industry is one of the major sources of greenhouse gas emissions with significant energy demand. Currently, 73% of the world's steel is manufactured through the coalcokebased blast furnacebasic oxygen furnace route (BFBOF), emitting about two tonnes of CO 2 per tonne of steel produced. This review reports the major technologies, recent developments, challenges and technoeconomic ...

Coal: Anthracite, Bituminous, Coke, Pictures, Formation, Uses

Coal: Anthracite, Bituminous, Coke, Pictures, Formation, Uses

It is used as a source of heat for manufacturing processes. For example, bricks and cement are produced in kilns heated by the combustion of a jet of powdered coal. Coal is also used as a power source for factories. There it is used to heat steam, and the steam is used to drive mechanical devices. A few decades ago most coal was used for space ...

A review of ironmaking by direct reduction processes: Quality ...

A review of ironmaking by direct reduction processes: Quality ...

The use of coal in reduction of iron ore is associated with pollution and greenhouse gas emissions, particularly CO2 (Yilmaz and Turek, 2017). The supply of scrap steel is also diminishing due to its ever increasing use in both BF â€" BOF and DRI â€" EAF steel making routes (Kirschen, Badr and Pfeifer, 2011).

Pathways to decarbonisation episode two: steelmaking technology

Pathways to decarbonisation episode two: steelmaking technology

Emissions from DRI vary with the source of fuel, with coalbased DRI in India, producing around t CO 2 /t steel and natural gasbased DRI producing around t CO 2 /t steel. Of all the current commercially available technologies, scrap based EAF steel making is the greenest with emissions of around t CO 2 /t steel on average ...

Units and calculators explained  Energy Information ...

Units and calculators explained Energy Information ...

1 gallon of heating oil (with sulfur content at 15 to 500 parts per million) = 138,500 Btu. 1 barrel of residual fuel oil = 6,287,000 Btu. 1 cubic foot of natural gas = 1,036 Btu. 1 gallon of propane = 91,452 Btu. 1 short ton (2,000 pounds) of coal (consumed by the electric power sector) = 18,820,000 Btu.

Green Steel production — H2 Green Steel

Green Steel production — H2 Green Steel

Our DR reactor refines iron ore to directreduced iron (DRI). This is done by exposing iron ore to hydrogen, which reacts with the oxygen in the ore to form steam as a residual. Using our green hydrogen produced in our electrolysis for reduction instead of coal, typically used in integrated steel plants, allows us to reduce CO2 emissions from ...

Natural gas explained  Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Natural gas explained Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Natural gas is a fossil fuel energy source. Natural gas contains many different compounds. The largest component of natural gas is methane, a compound with one carbon atom and four hydrogen atoms (CH 4 ). Natural gas also contains smaller amounts of natural gas liquids (NGLs, which are also hydrocarbon gas liquids ), and nonhydrocarbon gases ...

[Exploring Hydrogen with POSCO #3] The Future of Steel — Hydrogenbased ...

[Exploring Hydrogen with POSCO #3] The Future of Steel — Hydrogenbased ...

The DRI then goes into a melter gasifier, where it changes into molten iron. The molten iron goes through a converter and becomes molten steel, with which various products are created. The reducing agent in this processing case is 75% carbon monoxide and 25% hydrogen — all generated in the melter gasifier with coal input.

A review on CO2 mitigation in the Iron and Steel industry through Power ...

A review on CO2 mitigation in the Iron and Steel industry through Power ...

Quite similar hydrogen rates have been used in DRI processes, but some differences are observed in SEC and emissions. The specific energy consumption calculated from [25] is very similar to the current average value in the steelmaking industry, but specific emissions are quite lower, even including that associated to electricity.

PDF Standard Operating Procedure for Captive Power Plants utilizing Coal ...

PDF Standard Operating Procedure for Captive Power Plants utilizing Coal ...

station as % of the coal quantity and that of nonpit head station as % of the coal quantity can be considered. However, these losses are pertaining to the quantity of the coal and does not have any impact on the GCV of the coal. 3. GCV of the coal is decreased over a period as a result of the storage in the coal yard.

Electric arc furnace Global Energy Monitor

Electric arc furnace Global Energy Monitor

Scrapbased EAF production results in approximately tonne CO 2 / tonne crude steel, while natural gasbased DRIEAF production results in approximately tonne CO 2 / tonne crude can also be used in DRIEAF production, with average emissions ranging from t CO 2 / t crude steel for the COREX/FINEX process and t CO 2 / t crude steel for the rotary kiln process.